Signatures are unique biometrics that belongs to each individual. From financial transactions to postal votes to consent for medical treatments: handwritten signatures play a vital role. Furthermore, they serve as a means of identification during business deals or establishing the legality of the documents. But, over the decades, technological advancements have made it easy for fraudsters to copy one’s signature and handwriting for monetary and other kinds of gains. However, it is possible to bust such crimes using signature verification forensics tests. A signature verification test is among the critical method for forgery detection.
The Concept of Signature Verification Test
In forensics testing, signature verification is a process that measures stroke direction, spacing, pressure, and size with the writing instruments used. It also tells the creator of the document, the time frame, the material used, and the modifications made. Moreover, the stamp, ink, or tools used can also be detected by the experts, which can help getting hold of the convict.
As a general approach to address the issue of offline/online signature verification, researchers have studied two different class patterns: class1 and class2. Here class1 represents the genuine signature set, and class2 represents the forged signature set.
In signature verification tests, two types of errors are typically considered. It is classified as False Rejection and False Acceptance. Furthermore, there are two different types of error rates: False Rejection Rate (FRR), which is the percentage of genuine signatures treated as forgeries, and False Acceptance Rate (FAR), which is the percentage of forged signatures treated as genuine. FRR is known as a type 1 error, and FAR is known as a type 2 error. Another factor that determines the system’s efficiency while evaluating the signatures is Equal Error Rate (EER). The EER is the location on a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) or Detection Error Trade-off curve where the FAR and FRR are equal. The smaller the values of EER, the better the system’s performance.
Detecting the Forgeries, Variations, and Documents with Signature Verification Test
Forgery is a white-collar crime under IPC section 465. It refers to the fabrication or alteration of a document to defraud someone. There are three types of forgery: freehand simulation, tracing, and electronic manipulation. Here’s an overview of each:
- Freehand Simulation: In this, a fraudster attempts to copy a signature using copies of the original documents.
- Tracing: Reproducing handwritten signatures using transmitted light or carbon tracing, where the fraudster places a blank sheet over the original and traces text and design elements.
- Electronic Manipulation: Using photo editors to copy signatures or information and paste it into a fraudulent document.
How does Signature Verification Test Determine the Variations?
Now, how can you spot document forgeries? Following are some key indicators of forged documentaries in signature verification tests:
- Blunt Starts & Stops – Normally, a signature would have ended with the pen’s momentum. In contrast, a forged copy might have abruptly ended or left an inkblot that indicates a blunt halt.
- Pen lifts & Hesitations – Forgers who do not know their craft may not have the necessary smooth motion and immediate precision. Pen lifts and hesitations appear as gaps in the words or overlapping ink.
- Tremors – From the pen’s unsteady movement, visible bumps and shakes can be seen in the ink trail. However, they may not be evident to the naked eye.
- Speed & Pressure – A forged copy with a thick, uniform line of ink suggests the hand used a prolonged and precise technique to create the shapes.
- Patching – The final trait examiners will look out for in signature verification forensics tests is patching. This means checking any attempts to correct the signature to make it look right.
Documents Scrutinized for Signature Verification Test
Generally, document examiners are asked to verify a document’s authenticity or authorship. For instance, who wrote the anonymous note found at a crime scene? Are the signatures on a mortgage loan authentic? Is the signature on the will documents indeed that of a deceased?
Signature verification forensics test are helpful in the following cases:
- Extortion notes
- Will documents
- Business contracts
- Forged business contracts
- Suicide notes under question
- Loan & mortgage documents
- Property/Inheritance documents
- Authenticity of Legal Documents, etc
DNA Forensics Laboratory – For Questioned Document Analysis in India
DNA Forensics Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. (DFL) is a renowned forensic company headquartered in New Delhi with a PAN Indian presence. Our testing lab is well equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostic equipment, like IR and UV light sources, video analysis tools, digital imaging instruments, and other specialized tools for signature verification forensics test. In addition, our team of qualified analysts is adept at analyzing different types of forged documents.
To learn more about the Signature Verification Forensics test in India, you can contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.