How Does a Telecommunication System Work?

How Does a Telecommunication System Work?

Telecommunications is long-distance communication by technological means, in particular using electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. The word is often used in plural telecommunications because it involves many different technologies.

The first means of distance communication included visual signals such as beacons, smoke signals, traffic light telegraphs, signaling flags, and optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communications included audio messages such as coded drums, pulmonary horns, and loud whistles. Today’s communications equipment includes electronic and electronic devices such as broadcast, telephone, telex, networks, radio, microwave, optical and navigation. Communication – send the phone.

The wireless revolution began in the first decade of the twentieth century with the invention of wireless communication by Guglielmo Marconi, who in 1909 won the Nobel Prize. In physics. Other experts and experts in telecommunication work and electronics include Charles Wheatstone, Samuel Morse (Telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (telephones), Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest (radio), such as John Logie Bird and Filio Farnsworth (TV).

Basic elements

The first telecommunication system has three main components, always visible in one way:

  • The printer collects information and converts it into a signal.
  • An advertising cat also called “body channel” carries a message.
  • Receives input from the channel and turns it back into active information.


 The word ‘telecommunications’ is adapted from the French language. It is composed of the Greek prefix tele- (τηλε-), which means “far” and a Latin message saying “to divide.”

Telecommunication networks

A communication network is a collection of transmitters, receivers, and communication channels that send messages to one another. Some digital communication networks include one or more routers that work together to transmit information to the right user. An analog communication network consists of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. Both types of systems may require repeaters to amplify or regenerate the signal when it is full over long distances. This is to combat attenuation, which can make the signal indistinguishable from noise. Another advantage of digital systems over analog systems is that their output is more natural to store in memory, i.e., two voltage states (high and low) are more comfortable to store than a continuous range of countries.

Communication channels

The term “channel” has two different meanings. In a way, a channel is a physical medium that transmits a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Examples include an atmosphere for sound communication, optical fibers for certain types of visual communication, coaxial cables to discuss voltages and streams, and space for free discussion using visible light, infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and waves. Radio. This last channel is called a “free space channel.” The transmission of radio waves from one place to another is not connected to an atmosphere or atmosphere. Perfect vacuum radio waves travel as quickly as possible through air, fog, clouds, or any gas other than air.

Another term of the term “channel” occurs in telecommunications during the “communication channels,” which is a sub-division of the transmission medium so that it can be recycled to conduct several information streams simultaneously. For example, one radio station can transmit radio waves in free space at frequencies close to 94.5 MHz (megahertz). It can communicate radio stations with a regularity close to 96.1 MHz at the same time… A radio station launched radio waves of about 180 kHz (kilohertz), which would focus on symmetries such as the previous one, called “carrier frequencies.” Each station in this sample is unglued from its neighboring stations by 200 kHz, and the technical margin for errors in the communications system is the difference between 200 kHz and 180 kHz (20 kHz).

In the previous example, the “free space channel” was divided into communication channels by frequencies, and a separate frequency band assigned to each channel in which radio waves were to be transmitted. This system to share the average interrupted

Frequency-based routes (FDM) are called “frequency split multiplication.”

Another way of dividing the communication medium into channels is to assign a cyclic period (“period,” for example, 20 milliseconds per second) to each sender and to enable each sender to send messages only at their own time. Hole. This method of dividing the media into communication channels is called “Time Division Multiplexing” (TDM) and is a charity in fiber optic communication. Some radio communication systems use TDM as part of the assigned FDM channel. Therefore, these systems use a hybrid of TDM and FDM.

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