While planning any structure, there are many factors which need to be taken care into consideration. Selecting the foundation is one of the big changes for a structural engineer to have a strong base of the structure to be constructed. Specific criteria for foundation should be kept in mind and consider to achieve a favourable and strong design. To achieve the requirement for the structure, the geotechnical investigation report or soil report can be used so this is required reference before deciding the criteria.
The geotechnical investigation report includes actual field studies and laboratory analysis of the previously designed structure in the case of renovation for field report of the place on which the structure is going to stand. To have this report for a design of the building, a series of boring tests, geophysical and primary investigative techniques, or chemical analysis in some cases are performed on selected samples and boreholes. the characteristic of the soil from which the project is determined and results are included in this report.
Here are some factors which can help to decide the criteria for a suitable foundation.
1. the topographic location of the proposed project-
First of all, the topographic location of the proposed project is considered in selecting a suitable foundation because this is the most important while designing any plan. 100% of the standing capacity of any structure depends on the place at which it is standing. The structural consultants or structural engineer should know the general characteristics of the site which include the ground surfaces, the features of the place and a description of the place.
This may include changes in the ground surface and the natural calamities occurred at the place. for example, if mountains are present at the place or the place may have an uneven slope and or the general site layout is near water bodies or it may happen that the site had existing buildings and other structures. This all the factors affects the plan in some way so none of them should ignore. This inspection of the site is important at first because it gives an idea to a designer what to consider during the design process.
2. Prevailing Weather Conditions-
In selecting the right foundation, the prevailing climate condition is also important. Let’s understand it with some examples, A hot climate has a bad or unfavourable effect on the concrete structures. Hot weather is characterized by evaporations that exceed precipitation. In summer, their is dry wind flow and it’s not an appropriate condition to build the structure. On the other hand, cold weather has its own advantages and disadvantages.
This also have a major impact on the concrete foundation. If the temperature is really low and if the ground freezes, it may cause the soil to contract and this can result in the instability of underlying soils. This is not an appropriate condition for structure to build. To avoid such problems, a concrete mixture is used in such a way that it resists the climatic effect.
3. Groundwater Table-
The level of the groundwater table is one of the important considerations to decide on a good foundation. As the groundwater table is subjected to variations due to tidal weather seasonal changed. The position of the groundwater plays an important role because if it’s below the formation level of the foundation, then a shallow footing like isolated or combined footing can be suggested otherwise if its above the foundation level then dewatering is used.
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